- Eco-tourism – for regionally-oriented cities where the primary sector dominates
- Advanced, low carbon manufacturing – for regional or nationally-oriented cities where the secondary sector dominates
- Knowledge and culture-oriented services – for regionally or nationally-oriented cities where the tertiary sector dominates
- High-tech innovation – for internationally-oriented cities where the secondary sector dominates
- Global advanced producer services – for internationally-oriented cities where the tertiary sector dominates
The analysis shows that most cities brand themselves in conformity with what their pathway would lead one to predict, except cities with a strongly manufacturing oriented profile. These may adopt branding strategies that contrast sharply with their historical legacy and current profile, and risk promoting themselves in ways that the outside world is likely to perceive as lacking in credibility.
This research article was co-authored by Martin de Jong, Yawei Chen, Simon Joss, Haiyan Lu, Miaoxi Zhao, Qihui Yang and Chaoning Zhang and published in the Journal of Cleaner Production.
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Image: Barges transport goods on the Yangtze River in Nanjing city in China. Copyright: CHEN WS / courtesy of Shutterstock.com.