- the ‘service user’ mode that occurs, for example, in transport, broadband or water services
- an ‘entrepreneurial’ one, eg fostering citizen co-creation with hackathons
- ‘political’ modes present in activities that can influence policy-makers, such as the use of online discussion boards, and
- the ‘civic’ mode, which can arise from digital elements in public spaces, or from efforts to empower civil society with technology.
They find that the first two modes are dominant in the smart city initiatives analysed.
Image: MiGuide interactive screens being used in Manchester. Credit: magneticNorth, developers of MiGuide.